Assam secretariat administration department guide – Error in a sentence
Error in a sentence A run – on sentence is a common writing error : When two or more sentences are combined incorrectly in one sentence, the result is a run – on sentence.
1. Run – on Sentence or Comma Splice : A run – on sentence is a sentence that joins two independent clauses without punctuation or the appropriate conjunction. A comma splice is similar to a run – on sentence, but it uses a comma to join two clauses that have no appropriate conjunction. Fixing a run – on sentence or a comma splice can be accomplished in one of five different ways . Incorrect sentence : ” Rachel is very smart, she began reading when she was three years old . “
Solution 1 : Separate the clauses into two sentences . ” Rachel is very smart . She began reading when she was three years old . “
Solution 2 : Replace the comma with a semicolon . ” Rachel is very smart ; she began reading when she was three years old . “
Solution 3 : Replace the comma with a coordinating conjunction . ” Rachel is very smart , for she began reading when she was three years old . “
Solution 4 : Replace the comma with a subordinating conjunction . ” Rachel is very smart because she began reading when she was three years old . “
Solution 5 : Replace the comma with a semicolon and transitional word or phrase . ” Rachel is very smart , as a result , she began reading when she was three years old . “
2. Pronoun Disagreement : Some of the most common grammar mistakes are pronoun errors . They occur when pronouns do not agree in number with the nouns to which they refer . If the noun is singular , the pronoun must be singular . If the noun is plural , the pronoun must be plural as well . For example :
Incorrect : ” Every girl must bring their own lunch . “
Correct : ” Every girl must bring her own lunch . “
Pronoun errors are common in modern English , as writers try to avoid awkward phrasing or the implication of sexist language . Although this is an admirable goal , it is still important to learn the correct grammar and use it in more formal situations .
3 . Mistakes in Apostrophe Usage : Apostrophes are used to show possession . However , you do not use an apostrophe after a possessive pronoun such as my , mine , our , ours , his , hers , its , their , or theirs . For example :
Incorrect : ” My mothers cabin is next to his ‘ cabin . “
Correct : ” My mother’s cabin is next to his cabin . “
In the case of it’s , the apostrophe is used only to indicate a contraction for ” it is . ” For example : Incorrect : ” Its a cold day for October . ” Correct : ” It’s a cold day for October . “
4. Lack of Subject-Verb Agreement : Confusion over subject-verb agreement can be the source of many grammatical errors. When speaking or writing in thep resent tense, a sentence must have subjects and verbs that agree in number. If the subject is singular, the verb must be singular. If the subject is plural, the verb must be plural as well. For example:
Incorrect: “These recipes is good for beginning chefs.”
Correct: “These recipes are good for beginning chefs.”
5. Misplaced Modifiers : To clearly communicate your ideas, you should place a modifier directly next to the word it is supposed to modify. The modifier should clearly refer to a specific word in the sentence. Misplaced modifiers can create confusion and ambiguity. For example:
Incorrect: “At eight years old, my father gave me a pony for Christmas.”
Correct: “When I was eight years old, my father gave me a pony for Christmas.”
6. Sentence Fragments : Sentence fragments are also common grammar mistakes. A sen-tence needs to have a subject and a verb. A fragment often happens after another related idea has been expressed. For example:
Incorrect: “Sharon stayed home from school the other day. Because she was sick.”
Correct: “Sharon stayed home from school the other day because she was sick.”
7. Missing Comma in a Compound Sentence : A compound sentence expresses two complete and related ideas, and it usually includes a conjunction to connect these two parts. There should be a comma before the conjunction to indicate the two ideas are related. If that’s missing, it’s a mistake readers will notice. For example:
Incorrect: “Jim went to the store and Ella went with him.”
Correct: “Jim went to the store, and Ella went with him.”
8. Ending a Sentence in a Preposition : Another common grammar mistake is ending a sentence with a preposition. A preposition, by its nature, indicates that another word will follow it. In casual conversation, this type of error is no big deal, but you should avoid this mistake in your writing. For example:
Incorrect: “What reason did he come here for?”
Correct: “For what reason did he come here?”
9. Mixing Up Spellings : There are words that sound the same but have different spellings and meanings. If you mix these up, it can be an embarrassing mistake. These are a few of the most commonly confused words:
“You’re” vs. “your” “To” vs. “two” vs. “too”
“Weather” vs. “whether” “There” vs. “their”
Incorrect: “There father went to school there.”
Correct: “Their father went to school there.”
10. Mixing Up Similar Words : Sometimes, it’s not a matter of mixing up the spelling as much as an error in word choice. There are many words that sound similar but have different meanings and spellings. These include the following:
“Affect” and “effect” “Except” and “accept”
“Comprise” vs. “compose” “Further” vs. “farther”
Incorrect: “The rain had a good affect on the farmer’s field.”
Correct: “The rain had a good effect on the farmer’s field.”
11. Unnecessary Commas : While commas are important for clarity and give the reader a chance to pause in the sentence, it’s possible to use commas when ayo. u don’t need them. These unnecessary co s can be confusing to read, and they make writing look less professional. Before you use a comma, think about why you’re using it. If you aren’t sure it’s needed, double check by reviewing comma rules. For example:
Incorrect: “She had a stomach ache, because she ate too much ice cream.”
Correct: “She had a stomach ache because she ate too. much ice cream.”
12. Mistakes With Well and Good : One of the most common grammatical errors is mixing up “well” and “good.” In general, “well” is an adverb, while “good” is an adjective. When you aren’t sure which one to use, simply ask yourself whether an adjective or an adverb is appropri-ate for the situation. For example:
Incorrect: “I am doing good in math.”
Correct: “I am doing well in math.”
13. Mixing Up Adverbs and Adjectives : If you mix up adverbs and adjectives, this can be an embarrassing grammar mistake. This is the kind of error that can annoy a teacher or make the difference between a great grade on an essay and getting marked down. This happens most often with words that end in “-ly.” For example:
Incorrect: “Susan gave me a real nice bouquet of flowers.”
Correct: “Susan gave me a really nice bouquet of flowers.”
14. Confusion Between Fewer and Less : Many people mix up “fewer” and “less.” If you’re talking about the amount of something, you need to decide whether the item is all one thing or a group of many things. If it’s a group of many smaller things, you should use “fewer.” If it’s one thing, you should use “less.” For example: Incorrect: “The store was almost out of dog food. There were less cans on the shelves than there were yesterday.”
Correct: “The store was almost out of dog food. There were fewer cans on the shelves than there were yesterday.”
Others Example :
1. Incorrect: Myself I am Suresh babu.
Correct: I am Suresh babu.
While introducing oneself, it is usually observed that the users mix up both the possessive pronoun ‘myself and the subject pronoun ‘I’.
2. Incorrect: I am having four brothers and three sisters.
Correct: I have four brothers and three sisters.
Present continuous tense cannot be used for pragmatic situations present tense should be used. such as this. Simple present tense should be used.
3. Incorrect: He do not have a laptop.
Correct: He does not have a laptop.
Do not should not be used after the subject pronoun (He, She, It).
4. Incorrect: Does she has a car?
Correct: Does she have a car? The helping verb does is used at the beginning and the main verb have denotes possession or ownership.
5. Incorrect: (Question) “Today office is there?” (Answer) “No office is not there. Today is Bharat bandh.”
Correct: (Question) “Is today a working day?” OR “Are we working today?” (Answer) “Yes we are working today or no we are not working today.”
6. Incorrect: That only, she is very arrogant. Correct: That was what I said. She is very arrogant. Saying “That only” was the wrong way to emphasize what the speaker has already said.
7. Incorrect: Last before year she got very good marks. Correct: Year before last she got good marks.
Phrases that can be used: Month before last, Day before last, Week before last.
8. Incorrect: He did not wrote the test last week.
Correct: He did not write the test last week.
The helping verb ‘did’ is followed by the present tense of the verb and not the past tense form.
9. Incorrect: I cannot cope up with this pressure.
Correct: I cannot cope with this pressure.
The meaning of the verb cope is to manage. ‘Cope’ is followed by the preposition ‘with’, and never followed by ‘up’. Even professionals commit this error.
10. Incorrect: I came to office by walk.
Correct: I came to office on foot.
We can say “by car”, “by bike”, “by bus”, “by train” and “by flight”. However, we cannot say “by walk”, as it is the “foot” which is being used to travel and not “walk”.